The graph is a line chart titled "Official and Supplemental Measures of US Poverty, 2004–2019."
The y-axis ranges from 10 to 16 percent, and the x-axis spans the years 2004 to 2019.
The chart plots the official US poverty rate, the Census Bureau's supplemental net income-based rate, and the net outlay-based rate that the researchers introduce.
All three rates increased during the Great Recession, reaching between 15 and 16 percent, approximately.
While the three rates decreased in the decade after, the net outlay-based rate decreased the least. In 2019, the official and net income-based measures were 12.1 and 10.5 percent, respectively. The net outlay-based rate was 13.7 percent.
Source: Researchers' calculations using data from the US Census Bureau and the Consumer Expenditure survey.