Excludes spending on structures, equipment, and noncommercial medical research. Data unavailable for: the Netherlands in 1970 and 1971; Australia in 1970; Germany in 1991; and France from 1971 through 1974, 1976 through 1979; 1981 through 1984, and 1986 through 1989. These countries are not included in averages calculated for those years use interpolation from nearest year. US values are obtained from CMS National Health Expenditure data.