55 percent lower emissions in 2030 compared
to 1990 and climate neutrality in 2050
Among the various scenarios consistent with EU climate targets used
by the European Commission, we picked the MIX scenario. E-liquids and e-gas are synthetic fuels, resulting from the combination of green
hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water with renewable electricity and CO2 captured either from a concentrated source or from the air.
Bioenergy includes solid biomass, liquid biofuels, biogas, waste.
Source:Bruegel/ECFR based on European Commission (2020)